What is immunity?
This word comes from the Latin immunitas, which means deliverance, liberation. Speaking the language of science, then the immune understand defenses against various influences (both internal and external), which act as antigens. Simply put, the immunity can be called a kind of bodyguard for our body.
In this isolated two types of immune defense:
Immunity helps resist various diseases
Nonspecific protection means that it has no specific action in relation to the specific pathogen. What is the non-specific defense mechanisms? These include the following:
- The impermeability of the skin and mucous membranes for many microorganisms;
- Presence in the stomach contents and secretions of skin glands of certain substances that have an adverse impact on microorganisms;
- The presence of blood, tears, saliva and other bodily fluids of specific enzymes capable of destroying microorganisms.
Specific protection implies acquired immunity. Play a role such bodies immune defense, as the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes. This enables the specific cellular defense mechanisms.
Stages of development of immunity
Formation of the child’s immune system can be called a genetically programmed process. He even begins in utero. So has the value of future health status of mothers. Transferred its infectious disease, any pregnancy complications, as well as bad habits can have a negative effect on the immune system of the future baby.
The formation of immunity immediately after birth. The period of delivery is a very important stage in the development of immunity kid. When it passes through the birth canal noted settlement body of the child to his new microorganisms. Therefore, at this stage it is important presence in the birth canal healthy microflora.
The next step is breastfeeding. Particularly important to obtain a toddler first drops of colostrum, because it gives rise to the formation of his normal microflora.
It is also important to know that the immune system in its development has several critical periods. Therefore we call the main ones.
- In the first 29 days of life the baby his immunity is depressed and is not well developed.
- The second critical period – this period of between 3 and 6 months. At this time, passive immunity is weakened as decreasing the amount of maternal antibodies.
- Second year of life, usually associated with the expansion of contacts of the child. It was at this time begins to form its immunity.
- Between 4 and 6 year life as possible failure in the immune protection of the child. At this time, has not yet formed local immunity, as well as some of the possible manifestations of an inherited defect in the immune defense.
- Adolescence is associated with a decrease in the total weight of the lymphoid organs. Therefore, it is now possible weakening of the immune defense.
Types of immunity
Immunity can develop
There are two types of immunity:
Natural immunity , in turn, may be congenital or acquired.
Innate immunity is the child gets from parents. In particular, through the placenta and breast milk baby transferred antibody. It is for this reason often lowered immunity in children who are bottle-fed.
Acquired immunity appears after any previous disease. For example, some ill with infectious diseases, they develop lifelong immunity. One of these diseases is measles, after which notes lifelong immunity. And with the flu, for example, although there is immunity, but it is very short, which does not exclude the fact that you can get sick again.
Artificial immunity can be active or passive. The first of these is developed after administration of the vaccine that contains antigens. At the same time by the body begins to produce antibodies active. Such immunity can persist for quite some time, sometimes for life.
Passive immunity is formed when the body is already ready to introduce antibodies contained in sera.
Signs of a weakened immune system
Certainly, many faced with such a term as sickly children. When classifying in this group of doctors, not only the frequency of the disease within a year, but other moments. Therefore, we list the main features of a weakened immune system of the child.
- Toddler suffers no less than 5 times during the year, the most common disease observed in autumn and spring.
- Recovering from illness the child is slowly recovering.
- Fungal diseases can be observed that, as a rule, difficult to treat.
- Often a child allergic reactions, which in this case we speak of high sensitivity level of immunity.
- Toddler pretty tired quickly, his behavior differs frequent whims, often suffering and sleep quality.
- There are signs of poor bowel function – constipation or diarrhea.
Contact intestinal immunity
In the way of any microorganism in our body faces many barriers. The main ones are the skin and mucous membranes. In particular, a fairly large surface area occupied by the intestinal mucosa. It is here that a high concentration of beneficial microorganisms, reflecting attack foreign flora.
Due to intestinal microflora solve a variety of problems:
– First, it creates a barrier that helps to protect against foreign bacteria;
– Secondly, due to the frequent meetings of useful and harmful microorganisms trains the immune system;
– All this gives the substances necessary for the operation of the large intestine;
– The synthesis of some useful vitamins.
But unfortunately, not all children can boast good condition of the digestive system, and hence the local immunity at the level of the intestine. In particular, problems may occur in the following cases:
– Babies who are bottle-fed;
– As persistent diarrhea, which is difficult to treat;
– If there is any clinical symptoms after appendectomy;
– For persistent food allergy;
– For frequently intestinal infections;
– Candidiasis of the digestive tract, especially with regard to children who are being treated with antibiotics;
– Frequent sowing at seeding pathogenic flora.
In all these cases we have to be an imbalance (both qualitative and quantitative) of useful intestinal flora is called intestinal dysbiosis. In these circumstances violated the protective barriers of the intestine and creates favorable conditions for growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
Therefore, one of the highlights of strengthening the immune system of the child should be the normalization of intestinal microflora. This can be done in various ways.
First, you want to adjust the child’s diet and to focus on foods that are rich in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
Second, the destination may require preparations containing probiotics.
This approach will help populate the intestines with beneficial microorganisms that enhance the immune system of the child.
Move – strengthening the immune system
Weaken the child’s body, not only the disease but also the lack of movement. Therefore, moderate exercise can increase the body’s immune. How do you properly organize physical activity for a child, she helped to strengthen its defenses and boost immunity?
Sports – main assistant immunity
At the organization of motor activity with the aim of strengthening the immune system can be divided into three areas:
– Breathing exercises.
Gymnastics may be recommended for children from 1 month. She performed in the absence of contraindications, among which are the following:
– Acute febrile illness;
– Purulent skin diseases;
– Expressed heart defects;
– Severe atrophy;
– Acute liver and kidney disease;
– The active form of tuberculosis and other
Due gymnastics improves muscle function, strengthens the musculoskeletal system of the child, his muscles develop faster. Exercise stimulates various types of metabolism, improve blood circulation. Well balanced all the processes of the nervous system – the child becomes calmer, improved his sleep. All this has a positive impact on the immune system.
During the first year of life gymnastics may include both passive and active exercises. It should be considered in children available gipertonus individual muscles on the first 3 months of life. Therefore, passive exercise (eg, hand-to-hand breeding, flexion) can be added to the complex only after 3 to 4 months of age.
Massage can be attributed to a type of passive gymnastics. Being powerful tactile stimuli, it has a positive effect on the child’s body. Under his influence, dilates blood vessels, improves blood circulation and metabolism activation occurs. Also massage stimulates the function of the heart, breathing and digestion. This effect also helps to strengthen the defenses of the child.
With the help of massage, you can activate the internal forces
Normal metabolism in the body depends on many factors, including the proper breathing. Execute special breathing exercises can be a good addition to the treatment of many diseases, as it perfectly enhances the body’s defenses.
Hardening to enhance immunity
To increase the body’s defenses hardening used since ancient times. Today, doctors agree that properly conducted tempering procedure can strengthen the immune system. How correctly tempered child?
Seasoned body infections are not afraid
You first need to say that there are several types of hardening:
– The water;
But for all of them there are certain rules, following which you can achieve the desired results.
Basic rules hardening
This means the daily performance of tempering procedures. If there are long breaks in the hardening, it will lead to the loss of acquired protective properties.
2. Gradual increase in impact strength.
When hardening gradually and smoothly, it is important to dose procedure. Protective mechanisms will be formed only when the body will be placed in front of constantly new challenge.
3. Individual approach.
In this case, you want to consider features of the physical development of the child and his age. Also pay attention to past illnesses.
4. Hardening is performed only on the background of the positive attitude of the child.
With a good mood at the kid formation of protective mechanisms is faster. If you do not pay attention to this point and carry out hardening mood for any child, you may not get a positive result.
5. Hardening should be done on a background of optimal thermal condition of the child.
Here is the view that if the kid is hot, even with a moderate hardening can occur hypothermia. If a child is cold, the blood vessels marked by a defensive reaction, which will not allow to develop the necessary mechanisms.
6. During hardening to be used a variety of forms and methods.
It should involve both local and general effects on the body. Quenching efficiency increases if it combined with exercise.
Reception air baths can be called the soft tempering
impact on the child’s body. It should begin with them any system hardening baby.
When air hardening should consider not only its temperature, but also the speed of air flow. Also important air ionization and content of harmful chemical impurities.
The very first step in such a hardening will be minor periods of time when changing the baby when he is naked without diapers. Gradually increase the time you can and bring it up to 10-15 minutes. In this case the optimum temperature to start would be 22 degrees.
For children older than 2 years can reduce the temperature of the air and bring it to 14 degrees. Also increases the duration of air bath – 30 minutes.
It is also important that the tempering air must necessarily be combined with physical activity a kid – you can at this time to perform gymnastic exercises.
Tempering air improves many metabolic processes in the body, has a positive effect on the composition of the blood, improves digestion, gives positive emotions and increases the body’s defenses.
Compared with air quenching water bath is more intense. Thus, the main factor is the temperature of the water.
The best time to start such hardening is summer or early autumn. At the same time during the day to carry out such procedures optimally in the morning immediately after waking up the baby.
The initial stage of tempering water can be called wiping. To do this, use a sponge or towel soaked with water.First, you must wipe the baby limb while performing massage in the direction of the fingers to the body. Later, wipe the chest, abdomen and back.
Please wipe only any one part of the body, and the rest of the baby’s body is covered. Gradually increase the area drench. Also gradually reduce the temperature of the water should be used for such procedures.
Pouring is the next stage of tempering water. Its effect is stronger.
Pouring useful to both children and adults
First, start with pouring feet – foot and moisten the lower half of the tibia. Then go to douche hand – the hand and forearm. And only then can begin to douche the entire body. The duration of this procedure is 20 to 30 seconds.
Initially water for dousing should be around 34 degrees. Later it starts phasing out, bringing to 24 degrees for preschool children and up to 14 degrees in schoolchildren.
Should also be said about the stop pouring. Here are located many reflex zones that have a general effect on the entire body. In particular, there is a connection – with cooling stop marked vascular reflex response of the respiratory tract. Therefore, a good stop pouring quenching procedure, which will help reduce disease nasopharynx.
Shower and bathing in the pond can be called the final stage of tempering water. These species are considered hardening even more effective. Especially useful in open water swimming, because when this child is influenced by three factors – water, air and sunlight. It is best to choose a bathing pond with a sandy beach and clean bottom.Even more useful sea bathing as other factors added to the beneficial effects of salt water.
You can not take a shower and bathe the child in the following cases:
– At higher temperatures had a body;
– Acute gastro-intestinal diseases;
– When inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
Being accepted to such tempering procedure, it should be remembered that the sun’s rays are a potent tool and use it with great care.
Start hardening best in the shade or under a cloudy sky. You can also stay in the sun in the early morning, when the sun’s rays slanting and less actively affect the body.
With this method of strengthening the immune system must also be observed gradual – both in time procedure, and to gradually increase the open area of the body.
Sunrays strengthen health
Take sun baths need 40 minutes after eating or not later than 30 minutes before meals. Also limit for children is the weather, when the temperature exceeds 30 degrees.
Food for immunity
Food can be called one of the main means of promoting children’s immunity. Unfortunately, the diet of many children does not differ sufficiently balanced, it has a lot of carbohydrates, fats, there is a lack of vitamins and mineral micronutrients.
Nutrition plays a huge role in strengthening the immune system
Therefore, when reducing the immunity of the child should pay attention to its menu. At the same should also be said about immunonutrientah that have a strong effect on the immune status of the baby. Such immunonutrientam include:
– Vitamins C, E, A;
– Polyunsaturated fatty acids;
The presence of these substances in the diet, is one of the important conditions necessary for high immunity.
Here alone is worth looking into probiotics – live microorganisms that have a positive effect on the intestinal microflora. Get their child’s body can both natural yoghurt, kefir, and some of the preparations made on the basis of probiotics.
We can distinguish several types of probiotics:
– Delivery of probiotics aerococcuses, bacilli and yeasts.
Violation of microflora in the intestine is able to reduce the body’s defenses. Therefore, restoration of normal microflora using probiotics can help strengthen the immune system.
Probiotics may be administered on a continuing long time since they are not drug. They can be used in the form of capsules, powders, and prepared from various dairy products.
It should be noted that there are certain foods that help better absorption of probiotics. In particular, these include oats, leeks, oats and artichoke.
Medicated ways to strengthen immunity
Drugs aimed at improving immune defenses are called immunomodulators. It is worth noting that these drugs do not increase the body’s resistance and change it. Orientation of immunomodulators in many respects depends on the child’s body and its initial sensitivity to various adverse factors.
In appointing such drugs to children requires great care. Resorting to them, as a rule, in the following cases:
– If the child has signs of immunodeficiency;
– If excluded all other causes that led to this state;
– If other ways to strengthen immunity (hardening correction power) have not yielded positive results;
– If the drug is approved for use by children of a particular age;
– If the pediatrician approves such treatment in order to improve immune strength.
There is a large number and variety of immunomodulators. Among them are several main groups.
- Means of bacterial origin. These include, for example, include IRS-19, likopid, imudon. In these preparations contain fragments of bacteria, which are not dangerous, but they have a pronounced immunostimulatory effect.
- Interferons – biologically active compounds that can block the development of infections. For this subgroup include alpha, beta and gamma interferons. Also, they are divided into natural and recombinant.
- Interferon inducers. These substances help in the development of the body’s own interferon.
- Herbal remedies. The most well known products based on Echinacea. Also immunomodulators of plant origin include ginseng, Siberian ginseng, wild rose.